There have been several attempts to identify individuals potentially at high risk for psychotic-spectrum disorders using brief screening measures. However, relatively few studies have tested the psychometric properties of the psychosis screening measures in representative samples of adolescents. The main purpose of the present study was to analyse the prevalence, factorial structure, measurement invariance across gender, and reliability of the Youth Psychosis At-Risk Questionnaire – Brief (YPARQ-B) in a community-derived sample of adolescents. Additionally, the relationship between YPARQ-B, depressive symptoms, psychopathology, stress manifestations, and prosocial skills was analysed. One thousand and twenty students from high schools participated in a cross-sectional survey. The YPARQ-B, the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and the Student Stress Inventory – Stress Manifestations were used. A total of 85.1% of the total sample self-reported at least one subclinical psychotic experience. We observed a total of 10.9% of adolescents with a cutoff score of >/=11 or 6.8% with a cutoff score of >/=13. The analysis of internal structure of the YPARQ-B yielded an essentially unidimensional structure. The YPARQ-B scores showed measurement invariance across gender. The internal consistency of the YPARQ-B total score was 0.94. Furthermore, self-reported subclinical psychotic experiences were associated with depressive symptoms, emotional and behavioural problems, poor prosocial skills, and stress manifestations. These results would appear to indicate that YPARQ-B is a brief and easy tool to assess self-reported subclinical psychotic experiences in adolescents from the general population. The assessment of these experiences in community settings, and its associations with psychopathology, may help us to enhance the possibility of an early identification of adolescents potentially at risk for psychosis and mental health problems.
Keywords: early detection; psychosis; risk; screening; YPARQ‐B
AIM: Preschoolers with behavioural difficulties, both at clinical and sub-clinical levels, are at higher risk for several negative outcomes. The current paper reports the results from a randomized clinical trial evaluating an adaptation of the Coping Power for preschool-aged children. In the present study, Coping Power is adapted as a universal prevention intervention, in which teachers deliver a curriculum that is designed to improve children’s social competence and reduce problem behaviours. METHODS: Ten nursery school classes (164 children, mean age 54.40 months) from two Italian schools were randomly assigned to Coping Power or to the control group, which received the standard academic curriculum provided in Italian nursery schools. Teachers in the five intervention classes implemented weekly lessons and extension activities over a 6-month period. Teacher and parent reports of child behaviour assessments were collected at the beginning and end of the school year. At each assessment period, teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. RESULTS: The findings suggest that after exposure to Coping Power, intervention children showed lower levels of behavioural difficulties, rated both by parents and teachers. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study are promising and can be interpreted as providing initial support for the efficacy of the preschool version of Coping Power.
Keywords: aggressive behaviour; disruptive behaviour disorder; prevention; school
Although the importance of parenting styles directly influencing child development is well established, fewer studied have examined whether parenting styles also affect children’s behavioural problems indirectly, mediated through children’s academic self-concept (ASC). We examined direct and shared effects of parenting styles on behavioural problems of 199 Kurdish primary school children with a mean age of 11 years 7 months (range 11 years 5 months to 12 years 3 months). Questionnaires measured parenting styles (child version of Alabama Parenting Questionnaire), assessed children’s ASC (Myself-As-Learner Scale) and identified children’s behavioural problems with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). PROCESS analysis was used to perform the mediation analysis. The results revealed that positive and negative parenting composites are indirectly related to children’s internalising behaviour problems. In addition, ASC partially mediated the relationship between the negative parenting composite and prosocial behaviour. However, the mediation analysis did not show the expected indirect effect of parenting styles on externalising problems as being mediated via ASC. Hence, we argue that the ASC serves as a significant mediator in the relationship between parenting styles with prosocial behaviour and internalising problems.
Keywords: Academic self-concept; Behavioural problems; Mediating effect; Parenting styles
Background: Little data are available on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children in Germany at the age of school enrollment. Objective: Aim of this study was to investigate the HRQOL of children during school enrollment and to determine its predictors with special focus on environmental factors. Methods: Data from the fifth survey of the Health-Monitoring-Units (GME) conducted in Bavaria (2010/2011) were analyzed. Parent-reported data on HRQOL using the KINDL-R(evised), the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), socio-demographic characteristics and characteristics of the living environment were assessed. Results: The sample included a total of 3,744 children (45.9% female; mean age: 6.0; SD=0.4). Girls had significantly higher values than boys in total HRQOL (83.7 vs. 82.4, p =0.0001) and in all KINDL-R subscales except 'psychological well-being' and 'physical well-being'. For the latter, boys had significantly higher values than girls (84.1 vs. 82.9, p=0.0103). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that parental annoyance with air or noise pollution, possibility for children to safely play outside and the time a child is outside on weekdays in the summertime were significant predictors of total HRQOL measured by the KINDL-R. Obesity was not linked to HRQOL. Children with migration background had significantly higher values in the subscales 'family' and 'friends'. Conclusions: Environmental factors are associated with HRQOL in children at the age of school enrollment but only partially of relevant use. Although they show significant associations, their explanatory power of the variability observed is rather limited.
Keywords: Children; health-related quality of life; environmental factors; predictors
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity and academic outcomes and classroom functioning in a community-based sample of children with and without ADHD. METHOD: Participants included children with ADHD (n =179) and a non-ADHD group (n =212). ASD symptom severity, academic and learning skills, and classroom functioning were assessed via teacher report using the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS; ASD and Academic Competence subscales) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; all subscales). RESULTS: Children with ADHD had higher teacher-reported ASD symptoms than children without ADHD (beta= .62, p< .001). Greater teacher-reported ASD symptoms were associated with more behavioral difficulties in the classroom for children with ADHD (beta= .50, p< .001). There was little evidence of an association between academic competence and ASD symptom severity in children with ADHD (beta= -.11, p = .15). CONCLUSION: ASD symptoms are associated with elevated classroom behavioral difficulties for children with ADHD.
Keywords: ADHD; ADHD; autism spectrum disorders (ASD); children