Epidemiological study of self-reported sleep problems in Turkish high school adolescents.


BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency and correlates of a variety of sleep problems in adolescents. METHODS: A representative school-based sample of 3485 8th-12th graders was selected according to the cluster sampling technique. A sleep questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were completed by the students along with their parents. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent variables of insomnia, parasomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). RESULTS: Initiation insomnia, maintenance insomnia, non-restorative sleep (NRS) and EDS were described by 12.4%, 10.7%, 9% and 9.7%, respectively. At least one parasomnia with a frequency above the median was reported by 23.4% (nightmare, 12.8%; sleep terror, 3.6%; sleepwalking, 2.5%; bruxism, 2.5%; and sleep talking, 10.9%). Insomnias and parasomnias were highly associated with each other. Female gender was related to maintenance insomnia, NRS and night terror. Emotional problems correlated with initiation insomnia, maintenance insomnia, NRS, EDS, nightmares and bruxism; hyperactivity/inattention with initiation insomnia, NRS and sleep talking. Conduct problems were associated with NRS, whereas poor school performance was associated with initiation insomnia. CONCLUSION: Self-reported sleep problems were prevalent and highly associated with each other and behavioral and emotional difficulties in Turkish adolescents.