(from the chapter) There are long standing debates in New Zealand about how best to respond to youth who experience the effects of cumulative disadvantage. These debates emphasise the importance of enhancing social participation in areas such as education, community activities and workforce experiences (Mackey & Lockie, 2012) and with ensuring culturally responsive practice (Macfarlane & Macfariane, 2012). Our interest has been in understanding the topography of high risk environments to shed light on patterns of disadvantage and on differences within groups of youth experiencing significant adversity. Accordingly we completed an analysis of the connection between cultural group membership and a number of key risk and protective variables for youth in the New Zealand Pathways to Resilience Study (Pathways Study); a national study of risk and resilience, connected to the International Pathways to Resilience Study (www.resilienceresearch.org). We wanted to understand whether or not the connection between cultural group membership and broad patterns of disadvantage noted in national statistics were reflected within this group of vulnerable young people. We also wanted to understand more about the connection between cultural group membership and resilience, because of the important protective role that this has been noted to confer upon children and youth exposed to high levels of background adversity (Masten & Wright, 2010). This chapter focuses upon data collected from youth who were recruited into the Pathways Study during 2009 and 2010 (n = 1,494). The youth included in the current analysis (n = 605) were purposefully selected because they were concurrent clients of two or more service systems (i.e., youth needed to be involved with were two or more of the juvenile justice, child welfare, alternative or special education and/or mental health service systems in order to be categorised as a multiple service user). These multiple-service using youth (MSU) had received services from at least two service providers in the 6 months prior to participating in the study.