Weight and gestational age are relevant criteria for assessing the conditions of childbirth. The goal of the present study was to characterize and compare the behavior of a cohort of children stratified by two criteria: birth weight and birth weight in relation to the gestational age. At the ages of 10 and 11 years, 677 children were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The following statistically significant differences were observed: the low weight group had more emotional symptoms than the normal weight group; the very low weight group had more hyperactivity compared to other groups; and the small in relation to the gestational age group had more difficulties with respect to the total score and emotional symptoms in relation the other groups. It was concluded that the stratification by two criteria allowed the identification of specific difficulties in behavioral performance.