BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic industrial chemical commonly used in consumer products. Results from the Canadian Heath Measures Survey (CHMS) indicate that more than 90% of children and youth aged 6 to 19 have detectable levels of urinary BPA. Childhood concentration levels of BPA have been linked with negative behavioural outcomes. DATA AND METHODS: The data are from the first two cycles (2007 to 2009 and 2009 to 2011) of the CHMS, which collected biomonitoring indicators via spot blood and urine samples. Behavioural outcomes-hyperactivity/inattention, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, peer problems, and prosocial behaviour-were assessed with Goodman’s Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Geometric mean urinary BPA concentration was examined overall and by demographic and socioeconomic correlates. Six multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate associations between childhood BPA concentrations and risk status for each outcome. RESULTS: Children aged 6 to 8 had higher BPA concentrations than did older children and youth. Concentrations were significantly higher among children and youth exposed to second-hand smoke every day or almost every day and those in low or lower-middle income households. Higher BPA concentrations were associated with increased odds of hyperactivity among girls and lower prosocial behaviour among boys. INTERPRETATION: These findings suggest an association between urinary BPA concentration and children’s behavioural outcomes.