Objective: To evaluate the effect of rural community-based family workshop for improving psycho- behavioral performance of left-behind preschoolers so as to build an effective evidence-based community intervention model for rural left-behind children. Methods: In the study, multi-stage sampling method was adopted, firstly selecting five cities located in the east, west, south, north and middle of Guangdong province, secondly selecting two counties with a considerable level of economic development from each city, thirdly selecting two neighboring rural communities from each of the ten selected counties, naming them as intervention community and control community respectively. In the intervention community, 110 volunteers of rural left-behind preschoolers and their families were recruited into family workshop intervention group (FW group), and 70 volunteers of rural left-behind preschoolers and their families were recruited into normal activity control group (NA group). Both of them took part in rural community normal activities. In addition, the intervention group implemented 8 month rural community-based family workshop intervention. Pre-and post-intervention measure was the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ)-parent’s version containing five subscales-emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems and prosocial behaviors. Results: The mean difference of pre-and post-assessment of FW and NA group were [(0.5 +/- 1.6), (-0.4 +/- 2.7)] on ‘hyperactivity/inattention’ subscale and [(-1.0 +/- 2.9), (0.1 +/- 3.6)] on ‘prosocial behaviors’ subscale respectively, both of which were statistically significant (P < 0.05). After intervention, the FW group scored significantly lower on SDQ total difficulties, 'conduct problems' and 'hyperactivity/inattention' subscales and significantly higher on 'prosocial behaviors' subscale (Ps < 0.05), while the NA group had no significant difference on all subscales scores before and after intervention (Ps > 0.05). Conclusion: It suggests that the rural community-based family workshop may have a certain effect on improving left-behind preschoolers’total difficulties and behavioral problems such as conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviors.