Cyber victimization in high school: Measurement, overlap with face-to-face victimization, and associations with social-emotional outcomes.


Cyber victimization is a contemporary problem facing youth and adolescents (Diamanduros, Downs, & Jenkins, 2008; Kowalski & Limber, 2007). It is imperative for researchers and school personnel to understand the associations between cyber victimization and student social-emotional outcomes. This article explores (a) gender differences in rates of cyber victimization, (b) overlap between traditional and cyber victimization, (c) differences in social-emotional outcomes across victimization classes, and (d) associations among cyber victimization and social-emotional risk, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems while controlling for traditional victimization among 1,152 high school students. Boys reported significantly higher rates of cyber victimization than did girls. Ten percent of students reported experiencing low levels of both cyber and traditional victimization (low dual), 3% of students reported experiencing moderate levels of both cyber and traditional victimization (moderate dual), and 1% of students reported high levels of both types of victimization (high dual). Three percent of students reported experiencing traditional victimization but not cyber victimization (traditional). There were significant differences in social and emotional problems among youth involved in victimization in various groups (i.e., uninvolved, traditional, low dual, moderate dual, and high dual). Lastly, cyber victimization significantly predicted variance in social-emotional risk and internalizing problems above and beyond that predicted by traditional victimization.