Development of the Positive and Negative Parenting Scale (PNPS): Factor structure and construct validity.


This study identified 7 subordinate concepts of parenting behaviors (involvement, positive responsivity, monitoring, respect for will, overprotection, inconsistency, and harsh discipline) based on factor structures of existing scales and findings from a meta-analysis. It also developed an inclusive scale to evaluate all of these concepts. Confirmatory factor analysis on a large dataset from 7,208 children (grades 1 to 9) supported a 6-factor model where Involvement and Monitoring were integrated, suggesting that the scale can generally be evaluated, assumed subordinate concepts of parenting. A second-order factor model, wherein these 6 factors were assumed to be explained by 2 second-order factors (Positive Parenting and Negative Parenting), was superior to a model based on expert classifications and the first-order factor model which did not assume second-order factors in terms of fit and parsimony. Consistent with previous findings, Positive Parenting and its subscales correlated with children’s prosocial behavior and externalizing problems. Negative Parenting and its subscales correlated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. These results substantiated the construct validity of the scale.