The purpose of this study was to investigate psychometric properties (factorial structure, reliability, and criterion validity) of a Spanish version of the Parental Behavior Scale (PBS), an instrument developed to assess observable parental behavior. The sample consisted of 591 Peruvian families in Metropolitan Lima. Parents, mostly mothers, completed the scale regarding one target child attending 6th grade of primary education. Two models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis: a nine-factor model based on the original PBS and a five-factor model (PBS short version). Both models fitted the data well. A multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor structure, factor loadings and correlations were invariant for groups of parents with children in public or in private schools. Four factors showed adequate reliability: Positive Parenting, Rules, Discipline and Harsh Punishment. Correlational analyses showed significant associations between harsh punishment and child behavioral problems, measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and with the family environment, measured with the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment.