OBJECTIVE: To examine the mediating effect of self-concept between interparental conflict and mental health in children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 689 students (10-18 years) were surveyed using the convenient sampling method, and their mental health, self-concept, and interparental conflict were examined by the general status questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Self-Description Questionnaire, and Children’s Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and simultaneous analysis of several groups were used to construct the mediator model and analyze the data, respectively. The Bootstrap method was used to assess the significance of the mediating effects. RESULTS: Interparental conflict was positively correlated with mental health of children and adolescents (P<0.05), but was negatively correlated with self-concept (P<0.01). Self-concept was negatively correlated with mental health (P<0.01). Self-concept had a partial (60%) mediating effect between interparental conflict and mental health. Academic stage, but not gender, had a regulatory role on interparental conflict, mental health, and self-concept. CONCLUSIONS: Self-concept plays an important role between interparental conflict and mental health. It is necessary to improve self-concept level in children and adolescents exposed to interparental conflict.