OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with ADHD can be differentiated from each other in terms of their language profiles, and also to investigate whether these two clinical groups differ regarding mental health problems. METHOD: A total of 59 children in the age range 6 to 12 years participated in the study. The parents completed the Children’s Communication Checklist-Second Edition and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. RESULTS: Communication impairments were as prominent in the ADHD group as in the SLI group; however, the groups were separable from each other in terms of their language profiles. Furthermore, the ADHD group experienced significantly more mental health problems compared with the SLI group. CONCLUSION: Language should be assessed in children with ADHD and instruments sensitive to ADHD should be included when assessing children with SLI. Mental health should be an area of concern to be addressed in both groups.