Purpose: This study investigated the association between mothers’ mental health and education and the emotional and behavioural functioning of adolescents with chronic health conditions over time. Methods: Data were drawn from an ongoing study. Study participants (N = 363) were recruited through eight children’s rehabilitation centres. Logistic regression models were estimated. Results: There were significantly reduced odds that girls would display clinical signs of hyperactivity/inattention one year later compared to boys when a maternal mental health condition was present (OR = 0.10; p < 0.01). Where low maternal education was present, girls were more likely to display peer relationship problems one year later (OR = 3.72; p < 0.01). For both genders, having a mother with less than a high school education was also associated with conduct problems one year later (OR = 2.89; p < 0.01). Conclusions: Findings support a link between maternal factors and emotional and behavioural functioning in adolescents with chronic conditions. A holistic and family-centred approach to assessment and service delivery is indicated. Implications for Rehabilitation: 1. When conducting clinical assessments, service providers should consider associations between maternal education and mental health and the emotional and behavioural functioning of adolescents with chronic health conditions. 2. A holistic and family-centred approach to assessment and service delivery is indicated to ensure adolescents with chronic conditions and their families receive support for interrelated needs.