Purpose: The KIDSCREEN questionnaire assesses health-related quality of life in children and adolescents. In this study, the questionnaire was translated into Chinese (Cantonese) and administered to two independent groups of Hong Kong Chinese students. Various aspects of reliability and validity of the KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaires were examined. Methods: The translated KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire (and thus the KIDSCREEN-27 as a subset of the long form) was administered to cohorts of 1379 and 555 students. Confirmatory factor analysis and partial credit Rasch analyses were used to examine the underlying structure of the instrument. Test-retest reliability, convergent, and divergent validity were also examined. Results: The 10-factor structure of the Chinese KIDSCREEN-52 was supported. However, the original five-factor model of the KIDSCREEN-27 was not supported as seven distinct factors were found. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were acceptable. Evidence supporting convergent and divergent validity was found. Conclusions: Results from the two studies supported the use of the translated Chinese version of KIDSCREEN questionnaire children and adolescents’ health-related quality of life. Further research is required to examine possible cultural or language differences between the original version and the translated Chinese version of the questionnaire.