The present study evaluated the perceived quality of life of the mothers of street children and investigated the association with their history of childhood violence, the occurrence of current domestic violence, their current mental states and that of their children, and family functioning. The applied instruments were as follows: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, WorldSAFECore Questionnaire, Instrument for the Assessment of Quality of Life of the WHO, Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The sample of convenience consisted of 79 low-income mothers who raised their children alone, and most of whom had a positive screening for mental illness. The multiple regression analysis showed that the perception of quality of life of these women was associated with the presence of psychopathology either in themselves or their children and family dysfunction. Thus any program aimed at improving the quality of life of such mothers should consider addressing their mental problems as well as those of their children, besides offering educational and psychotherapeutic approaches to these families to improve the social environment.