Objective: First, to explore the prospectively predicting ability of resilience and emotional-behavioral problems on sleep problems. Second, to examine the mediating effect of emotional-behavioral problems on the relationship between resilience and sleep problems. Methods: A sample of two Junior schools from one city was totally measured for three times by Demographics, Resilience scale (RS), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in April 2011 (Grade 1) at time 1 (T1), May 2012 (Grade 2) at time 2 (T2), and November 2012 (Grade3) at time 3 (13). Results: Resilience at T1 prospectively and negatively predicted the sleep problems at T3, while the emotional-behavioral problems at T1 positively predicted the sleep problems at T3. Emotional-behavioral problems had a partial meditation effect between resilience and sleep problems, across time, which accounted for 68.55% of the total effect. Conclusion: Under risk environment, the students with poor resilience are more likely to develop emotional-behavioral problems which finally leads to sleep problems.