The aim was to test the internal structure of scores on the short and very short forms of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) scale and to study the relationship between the dimensions derived and external variables previously related to extreme temperament in a Spanish community sample. The sample comprised of 622 three-year-old children participating in a longitudinal study. Data were obtained from parents and teachers through a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires evaluating children’s characteristics and psychological states. Results showed a three-factor structure and moderate reliability of the scale scores for both the short and very short forms. Associations were found between the Surgency/Extraversion dimension and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and externalizing problems, between Negative Affect and internalizing and emotional problems, and between Effortful Control and attention, externalizing, and social problems and other executive function measures. Salient temperamental characteristics predicted psychopathological disorders and impairment at ages 3 and 4. The short forms of the CBQ provide reliable and valid scores for assessing temperamental characteristics in the preschool years.