Validity and reliability evidence of the TOCA-C in a sample of Greek students.


Validity and reliability evidence of the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Checklist (TOCA-C) was examined in 186 Greek students through exploratory factor analysis, divergent and concurrent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. The TOCA-C showed a high internal consistency for the three factors of Concentration Problems, Disruptive/Aggressive Behaviour, and Prosocial Behaviour (alphas = .89-.96), and acceptable two-week test-retest reliability. The three-factor solution explained 74.50% of the total variance. Regarding divergent validity, a significant Sex x Disability interaction was evident for Disruptive Behaviour, with women scoring higher in ‘special’ and lower in ‘general’ schools compared to men. Main effects were significant across disability, but not across sex. Correlations with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire suggested convergent and divergent validity evidence. The TOCA-C should be useful in testing Greek students with and without disabilities.